Does Reverse Osmosis Remove Dioxane?


  • 1,4-Dioxane is a manmade product.
  • 1,4-Dioxane can potentially cause Cancer.
  • Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) can effectively remove 1,4-Dioxane.
  • Activated Carbon Filtration downstream of the Reverse Osmosis System removes more than 90% 1,4-Dioxane from drinking water. 

Does reverse osmosis remove Dioxane?

Yes, reverse osmosis removes 1,4-Dioxane from your water. A reverse osmosis system alone may not be enough to remove 1,4-Dioxane completely from your drinking water supply. Several other methods can be used to remove 1,4-Dioxane from water.

You want to remove 1,4-Dioxane from your water because it is likely to be a human carcinogen. A carcinogen is a cancer-causing substance. Paint thinners and other chlorinated solvents can contain 1,4-Dioxane (STATE & ECU, 2022).

Chlorinated water may contain disinfection byproducts and 1,4-Dioxane (Godri Pollitt KJ, 2019). A simple water filter may not remove a chemical such as 1,4-Dioxane from your water supply (Stoiber, 2017). So, how do what do we know about 1,4-Dioxane in water?

1,4-Dioxane is not visible to the naked human eye. Gen X is the industrial trade name of 1,4-Dioxane. Dr Knappe and his research team found 1,4-Dioxane, an industrial contaminant, in the cape fear river (Communications, 2018).

You will be surprised to know that many personal care products contain 1,4-Dioxane (Stoiber, 2017). However, 1,4-Dioxane in drinking water can potentially cause Cancer in humans. Unfortunately, drinking water in Minnesota contains 1,4-Dioxane (MDH, 2015).

It is challenging to find a reverse osmosis system for Dioxane. A reverse osmosis system for Dioxane may work effectively with other water filtration systems.

reverse osmosis remove Dioxane

So, you will find 1,4-Dioxane everywhere, even in your bubble bath. Many foods also contain 1,4-Dioxane. 1,4-Dioxane is a manmade chemical. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has found 1,4-Dioxane in the Minnesota public water supplies (MDH, 2015).

How much 1,4-Dioxane is safe for humans if you cannot avoid it? Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) has developed a public guideline that states the maximum level of 1,4-Dioxane that is safe for human consumption (MDH, 2015).

MDH has stated that your public drinking water should not contain more than 1 ppb 1,4-Dioxane (MDH, 2015). If your drinking water supply contains more than 1 ppb, it can potentially cause kidney, liver, and respiratory damage in a short time span.

In other words, 1,4-Dioxane adversely affects the human body. It can cause cell damage in humans. 1,4-Dioxane belongs to the polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFAS compounds) category (MDH, 2015).

PFAS compounds are manmade compounds (burlingtonnc, n.d.). Your tap water test may indicate 1,4-Dioxane or other PFAS compounds in your tap water. Read this article to know more about “Does a reverse osmosis system remove Dioxane?”

Does a reverse osmosis system remove Dioxane?

Reverse Osmosis is probably one of the best methods to remove 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water. Your under-the-sink reverse osmosis system can remove the harmful levels of 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply.

Your city water may contain a potentially harmful chemical such as 1,4-Dioxane (burlingtonnc, n.d.). City administration should keep a check on the environmental quality of city water. Your local environmental health group can suggest a suitable water treatment method for you.

In some areas, you have to use a prolonged activated carbon filter downstream of the reverse osmosis treatment system to eradicate 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply.

Under-the-sink reverse osmosis system removes more than 0.35 ug/L 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply. You can have different levels of 1,4-Dioxane at your home. Do not worry. Under-the-sink reverse osmosis system removes the harmful levels of 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply.

A reverse osmosis system becomes crucial once you know that your house’s water supply is carrying 1,4-Dioxane. Well, the practice is slightly different in Europe. People in Europe use granular activated carbon filters downstream of the reverse osmosis system.

Research has shown that granular activated carbon filters (or GAC filter) downstream of the reverse osmosis system remove 47 organic micropollutants from water. Your under-the-sink reverse osmosis system is a highly efficient water filtration system. But it is less efficient than you want it to be.

The case is no different for activated carbon filtration. Activated carbon filtration can remove a contaminant that causes a bad odor in water. 1,4-Dioxane, as a chemical, has an ether-like smell, but it is miscible with water.

Do not be confused. Your reverse osmosis system can still protect you and your family from cancer-causing 1,4-Dioxane levels. Things become complicated because levels of 1,4-Dioxane vary from one area to another.

Why should I choose activated carbon filtration downstream of the reverse osmosis system?

Research has shown that prolonged contact activated carbon filtration after the reverse osmosis treatment is highly effective in removing dangerous levels of 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply.

It is always a safe option to use granular activated carbon (GAC) alongside the reverse osmosis system to deal with the staggering 1,4-Dioxane levels in your drinking water supply.

This practice is not unusual because both GAC and under-the-sink reverse osmosis systems can remove almost 96 percent of 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply. So why should you worry about 1,4-Dioxane in your drinking water?

Actually, there is no set federal standard for the 1,4-Dioxane levels in your drinking water supply. Individual states have determined their own drinking water standards. It is always better to conduct a water quality test (Laboratory Water Analysis) before worrying about 1,4-Dioxane levels in your drinking water supply.

Downside

Unfortunately, it may seem too costly to perform activated carbon filtration after the reverse osmosis treatment. The advanced oxidation processes, such as hydrogen peroxide treatment with ultraviolet light, are also costly.

How Do You Remove Dioxane from Water?

Remove Dioxane from Water

Different methods can be used to remove 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply. We have classified these methods into four different categories:

1.    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP)

2.    Membrane Separation

3.    Activated Carbon

4.    Synthetic Media Sorption Units

Four advanced oxidation processes can be used to remove 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply. These are:

1.    Ultraviolet Radiation and Hydrogen Peroxide

2.    Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide

3.    Ultraviolet Radiation (UV light) and Ozone

4.    Ultraviolet Radiation (UV light) and Free Chlorine/Chloramines

Two membrane separation processes can be used to eradicate 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply. These are:

1.    Reverse Osmosis System (RO System)

2.    Nanofiltration (NF)

Activated Carbon Filtration only uses Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) to remove 1,4-Dioxane from water. Synthetic Media Sorption Units refers to AMBERSORBTM 560. It also removes 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water supply.

Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were conducted at different test sites, such as Ann Arbor and Orange County Water District, to remove 1,4-Dioxane from groundwater.

Ann Arbor test and Orange County Water District test successfully used Hydrogen Peroxide and UV Light to remove 1,4-Dioxane from groundwater.

Your household products can carry both PFAS compounds and VOCs. Orange County Water District test was able to remove both PFAS contaminants and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from the water.

Detlef Knappe, as well as the environmental working group, suggest source control of 1,4-Dioxane to maintain the surface water quality.

Some manufacturers claim that their common water filter, such as the pitcher filter, can remove 1,4-Dioxane. A pitcher filter can remove a contaminant that causes a bad odor in surface water.

But you should not rely on your pitcher filter to remove PFAS contaminants, such as 1,4-Dioxane, from surface water (STATE & ECU, 2022).

Ultraviolet Irradiation and Hydrogen PeroxideRemoves more than 99 percent 1,4-Dioxane from drinking water
Ozone and Hydrogen PeroxideRemoves more than 99 percent 1,4-Dioxane from drinking water
Ultraviolet Irradiation and OzoneRemoves more than 98 percent 1,4-Dioxane from water
Ultraviolet Irradiation and Free Chlorine/ChloraminesRemoves more than 68 percent 1,4-Dioxane from water
Reverse Osmosis (RO)Removes more than 50 percent 1,4-Dioxane from water
Nanofiltration (NF)Removes more than 46 percent 1,4-Dioxane from water
Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)Removes 18 percent 1,4-Dioxane from water
AMBERSORB-TM 560Removes more than 99 percent 1,4-Dioxane from water

Do any water filters remove Dioxane?

water filters

The Reverse Osmosis System is a Membrane Separation water treatment. A solitary reverse osmosis system removes more than 50 percent 1,4-Dioxane from the drinking water. Studies have shown that a reverse osmosis system, along with activated carbon filtration, can remove more than 96 percent 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water.

Nanofiltration (NF) is also a Membrane Separation process. But solitary nanofiltration (NF) can only remove approximately 46 percent 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water.

Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), Ultraviolet Radiation and Hydrogen Peroxide treatment and Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide treatments are more than 99 percent effective in removing 1,4-Dioxane from drinking water.

Other AOPs, such as Ultraviolet Radiation and Ozone treatment, are 98 percent effective in removing 1,4-Dioxane from drinking water.

Solitary granular activated carbon (GAC) is only 18 percent effective in removing 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water. However, when GAC is applied downstream of a reverse osmosis system, its efficiency remarkably increases. GAC applied downstream of a RO can remove almost 56 percent 1,4-Dioxane.

What chemicals does reverse osmosis remove?

Does Reverse Osmosis Remove Dioxane?

An under-the-sink Reverse Osmosis (RO) system can remove the following chemicals from water (CDC, 2020):

  • Metal Ions
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Copper
  • Chromium
  • Lead
  • Arsenic
  • Fluoride
  • Radium
  • Sulfate
  • Calcium
  • Potassium
  • Phosphorous
  • Nitrate
  • Magnesium

Do carbon filters remove uranium?

The straight answer is “No.” When it comes to uranium removal, you should rely on something other than your carbon filter. Carbon filters are costly and do not completely remove uranium from your drinking water (Webb, 2022).

Does reverse osmosis remove uranium?

Yes, the reverse osmosis system can effectively remove uranium from your drinking water. Your under-the-sink reverse osmosis system can remove 90 percent of the uranium from your drinking water supply (Removing Uranium From Drinking Water Using Reverse Osmosis, n.d.).

Does bottled water contain 1,4-Dioxane?

No, bottled water should not contain 1,4-Dioxane. It also depends on your bottler. Water providers should provide 1,4-Dioxane information on bottle labels. Bottled water is advertised as purified water safe for human consumption. You should contact your bottler and ask whether your bottled water contains 1,4-Dioxane.

What is the industry standard for 1,4-Dioxane removal?

People use UV light treatment downstream of the reverse osmosis system for potable reuse (Matarazzo, 2020). . 1,4-Dioxane removal is crucial for potable reuse. Water testing is important to suggest a suitable water treatment.

1,4-Dioxane is a potentially cancer-causing chemical for humans. It is a manmade chemical that sneaks into your groundwater. Dr. Knappe suggests source control to limit 1,4-Dioxane in water. You can use AOPs to separate 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water.

The reverse osmosis system, solitarily, cannot completely control 1,4-Dioxane in water. You should have activated carbon filtration downstream of the reverse osmosis system to remove 1,4-Dioxane from your drinking water effectively.

Carbon filters do not remove uranium from your drinking water. You should conduct a water quality analysis before installing a water filtration system in your house. 

The reverse osmosis system can remove several minerals from your drinking water. It is probably the best membrane separation method to remove uranium from your drinking water.

Edvinas

This is my blog about the ways and solutions that can help you improve your health by taking more value from drinking water. As improving health means a lot to me, I decided to create the Water On Top project with the purpose to reveal the benefits of water, the finest products to take our daily water to another level, and much more great stuff about water that I believe is on top of our nutrition.

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